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JiTT: Using the Clock

JiTT General References

Simkins, Scott and Maier, Mark (Eds.) (2010) Just in Time Teaching: Across the Disciplines, Across the Academy, Stylus Publishing.

Patterson, E.T. (2005) Just-in-Time Teaching: Technology Transforming Learning – A Status ReportInvention and Impact: Building Excellence in Undergraduate STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Education, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Rhem, James. (2005). Just-in-Time Teaching Tomorrow's Professor listserv posting, originally published in the National Teaching and Learning Forum Newsletter, Volume 14, Number 1.

Novak, G. & Middendorf, J. (2004) Just-in-Time Teaching. In: Volume IV - What Works, What Matters, What Lasts. Project Kaleidoscope.

Novak, G.M & Patterson, E.T. (2000) The Best of Both Worlds: WWW Enhanced In-Class Instruction . Paper presented at IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education, May 24-27, 2000 Cancun, Mexico

Novak, Gregor M., Patterson, E. T., Gavrin, A. D., and Christian, W. (1999) Just-In-Time-Teaching: Blending Active Learning with Web Technology , Prentice Hall.

Novak, G.M & Patterson, E.T. (1998) Just-in-Time Teaching: Active Learner Pedagogy with WWW . Paper presented at IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education, May 27 -30, 1998 Cancun, Mexico

Creed, Tom. (1997) Extending the Classroom Walls Electronically. In: New Paradigms for College Teaching, eds. William E. Campbell and Karl A. Smith, 149-184. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Co.

What is Just-In-Time Teaching?

Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) is a teaching strategy that stimulates active learning and collaborative learning in and out of the classroom.

In short, JiTT uses feedback between classroom activities and work that students do at home, in preparation for the classroom meeting. The goals are as follows:

1.    to increase learning during classroom time,

2.    to enhance student motivation, 

3.    to encourage students to prepare for class, and

4.    to allow the instructor to fine tune the classroom activities to best meet students’ needs.

How It Works

JiTT relies on pre-class assignments completed by students before class meetings. The pre-class assignments cover material that will be introduced, and should be answered based on assigned reading or other preparation.

As a result, JiTT assignments provide an incentive for students to complete the reading or preparatory work prior to class, but unlike reading quizzes that take up valuable class time, JiTT assignments are completed and submitted online, and therefore the entire class-period can be devoted to discussion and active learning.

Requiring students to submit their pre-class assignment at least 1 hour before class allows the faculty member to review the students’ answers before class, and in most cases, faculty members use this time to adjust to the planned classroom activities.

In addition, the faculty member may oftern use quotes from students's responses as "talking-points" during the class period. Using student work as a starting point during class helps to make the class more student-centered as well as promotes interactive learning.

The Six-Step JiTT Cycle

The cycle for a single classroom meeting is as follows:

1.    Students complete reading or other preparatory work;

2.    Students complete pre-class assignment;

3.    Faculty member reviews pre-class assignments, and considers changes to classroom emphasis;

4.    Faculty member selects quotes from pre-class assignments to refer to during class;

5.    During class, faculty member uses quotes from student work to lead discussion of the material;

6.    Faculty member creates or adjusts next pre-class assignment to best meet students needs in light of progress made during class.

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