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History 111 - Women in American History - Kronbeck

Primary Sources


Primary sources are materials originating during the period you are studying. They include sources such as journal entries, artwork, newspaper articles, photos, and other items that reflect a firsthand experience or insights from a particular event or era.

Primary Sources | What Are They?

Watch this 3.01 min. video for a brief overview of primary vs. secondary resources.

Primary Sources Defined

What Are Primary Sources?

PRIMARY SOURCES are FIRST HAND ACCOUNTS and include works such as:

- diaries
- journals
- letters
- photographs
- speeches
- memoirs
- autobiographies
- original artwork (or photographic representation of art work)
- artifacts

A PRIMARY SOURCE can by anything that is considered a DIRECT SOURCE; in other words, a source that was created by someone who was either a direct participant in, or an observer of, an event. 

Primary sources can also include RAW DATA. Census data or facts published in a newspaper account immediately after an event may be considered primary, depending on the account.


- poetry or lyrics
- policy or legislation
- songs in audio format
- playbills
- promotional posters 
- fliers
- flags
- ticket stubs to an event
- postcards
- maps
- cartoons
- public opinion polls
- manuscripts
- quotations
- proganda
- other creative production or artwork in various mediums such as ceramics, metal, etc.


Although many sources can be considered primary, it's important to consult with your instructor to confirm a source you're considering using in your group project is acceptable for this assignment. While some instructors may accept a wide variety of primary sources, others may specify the kind of primary source you're expected to use. It's your responsibility to understand the requirements of the assignment and to select and use the correct materials. If you have questions, ASK!

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