This important resource provides students and researchers new insights into the 1960s in the U.S., through an in-depth analysis of forty important primary source documents and their lasting effect on American history. An historical timeline and bibliography of supplemental readings will support readers in understanding the broader historical events and subjects in the period. An introduction for each of the major subjects covered in this title considers the significant of document analysis for students and educators.
An era that changed America forever is analyzed through the words of those who led, participated in, and opposed the protest movements that made the 1960s a signature epoch in U.S. culture. * Opens a window on a revolutionary time when Americans stood up and demanded peace and tolerance * Highlights the expectations of free speech and equal treatment for all Americans and shows how those expectations were translated into actions * Includes background discussion of the 1960s and background discussion of each document * Compares and contrasts key passages, encouraging the reader to cross-reference documents within the volume and connect the dots between them * Examines exhibits as varied as Abbie Hoffman's testimony at the trial of the Chicago 7, Noam Chomsky's essay "The Function of a University in Time of Crisis," the Port Huron speech of the Students for a Democratic Society, Richard Nixon's Silent Majority speech, and Shirley Chisholm's Equal Rights for Women speech
1963 It was the year that Cold War protagonists sought a truce, the race to space stepped up a gear, feminism and civil rights flexed their political muscles, and President John F. Kennedy's assassination numbed the world. But as the front pages of history were being printed, the scoop of the century slipped by unnoticed. On January 13, 1963, two then-largely unknown musical acts made their first appearances on nationwide television in Britain. Neither the Beatles nor Bob Dylan could have known it at the time, but through some strange alchemy the anthems of social upheaval were being heard by a mass audience—and these artists were the catalyst. Within the year, their voices were captivating millions of ears around the world. The Beatles had become the poster boys of a revolution that still influences us to this day, and Dylan its prophet. In short, 1963 saw the birth of a global demographic power shift. Within that one year, youth, for the first time in history, had become a commercial and cultural force that commanded the attention of government and religion and exercised the power to shape society. 1963: The Year of the Revolution is the first book to recount the kinetic story of the liberation of youth through music, fashion, and the arts—and in the voices of those who changed the world so radically, from Keith Richards to Eric Clapton, Mary Quant to Vidal Sassoon, Graham Nash to Peter Frampton, Alan Parker to Gay Talese, Stevie Nicks to Norma Kamali, and many more. It is an oral history that records, documentary-style, the incredible roller-coaster ride of that year, in which a group of otherwise obscure teenagers would become global superstars. It serves not only as a fast-paced, historical eyewitness account but as an inspiration to anyone in search of a passion, an identity, and a dream.
Offering a unique approach to studying one of the most eventful eras in American history, this volume looks at a dozen key events of the 1960s and 1970s and considers the possible paths history might have taken if the outcomes had been different.
This book charts the changing complexion of American culture in one of the most culturally vibrant of twentieth-century decades. It provides a vivid account of the major cultural forms of 1960s America - music and performance; film and television; fiction and poetry; art and photography - as well as influential texts, trends and figures of the decade: from Norman Mailer to Susan Sontag; from Muhammad Ali's anti-war protests to Tom Lehrer's stand-up comedy; from Bob Dylan to Rachel Carson; and from Pop Art to photojournalism. A chapter on new social movements demonstrates that a current of conservatism runs through even the most revolutionary movements of the 1960s and the book as a whole looks to the West and especially to the South in the making of the sixties as myth and as history. Key Features:* Focused case studies featuring key texts, genres, writers, artists and cultural trends* Detailed chronology of 1960s American culture* Bibliographies for each chapter* Over 30 black and white illustrations
In this first comprehensive comparison of left-wing violence in the United States and West Germany, Jeremy Varon focuses on America's Weather Underground and Germany's Red Army Faction to consider how and why young, middle-class radicals in prosperous democratic societies turned to armed struggle in efforts to overthrow their states. Based on a wealth of primary material, ranging from interviews to FBI reports, this book reconstructs the motivation and ideology of violent organizations active during the 1960s and 1970s. Varon conveys the intense passions of the era--the heat of moral purpose, the depth of Utopian longing, the sense of danger and despair, and the exhilaration over temporary triumphs. Varon's compelling interpretation of the logic and limits of dissent in democratic societies provides striking insights into the role of militancy in contemporary protest movements and has wide implications for the United States' current "war on terrorism." Varon explores Weatherman and RAF's strong similarities and the reasons why radicals in different settings developed a shared set of values, languages, and strategies. Addressing the relationship of historical memory to political action, Varon demonstrates how Germany's fascist past influenced the brutal and escalating nature of the West German conflict in the 60s and 70s, as well as the reasons why left-wing violence dropped sharply in the United States during the 1970s.Bringing the War Homeis a fascinating account of why violence develops within social movements, how states can respond to radical dissent and forms of terror, how the rational and irrational can combine in political movements, and finally how moral outrage and militancy can play both constructive and destructive roles in efforts at social change.
The 1960s continue to be the subject of passionate debate and political controversy, a touchstone in struggles over the meaning of the American past and the direction of the American future. Amid the polemics and the myths, making sense of the Sixties and its legacies presents a challenge. This book is for all those who want to take it on. Because there are so many facets to this unique and transformative era, this volume offers multiple approaches and perspectives. The first section gives a lively narrative overview of the decade's major policies, events, and cultural changes. The second presents ten original interpretative essays from prominent historians about significant and controversial issues from the Vietnam War to the sexual revolution, followed by a concise encyclopedia articles organized alphabetically. This section could stand as a reference work in itself and serves to supplement the narrative. Subsequent sections include short topical essays, special subjects, a brief chronology, and finally an extensive annotated bibliography with ample information on books, films, and electronic resources for further exploration. With interesting facts, statistics, and comparisons presented in almanac style as well as the expertise of prominent scholars, The Columbia Guide to America in the 1960s is the most complete guide to an enduringly fascinating era.
This book looks at daily life during a pivotal decade in American history: the 1960s. It covers the Vietnam War and the civil rights movement as well as counterculture and protest movements. The 1960s saw the assassination of a popular president; a confusing and unpopular war that claimed the lives of thousands of American combatants; the passage of a national civil rights act that mandated equal rights across all races; countless violent exchanges among Americans with polarized views on the Vietnam War and civil rights; and through it all, the rise of a counterculture movement that challenged long-established American social and cultural traditions. Daily Life in the 1960s Counterculture looks at the 1960s from the perspective of Americans who, despite their best efforts to live normal lives, could not escape the tension, conflict, and controversy that surrounded them. The war and the violence associated with protests of it came at great personal cost to many American families. This book looks those social and cultural changes, examining such topics as the sexual revolution; recreational drug culture; the roles of film, television, and music; and more. Explains how political issues became personal threats to millions of Americans in the 1960s Recounts the birth of the 1960s civil rights movement in America Shows the roles that 1960s film, television, and music played in the lives of Americans Provides an understanding of the sexual revolution that began in the 1960s Offers readers with a firsthand look at the ideas that spurred people to action in the 1960s through primary source selections
This is the first and definitive work on the Free Speech Movement, which began in Berkeley in 1964 and helped to spawn the other momentous social movements of the 1960s, such as the anti-war movement and the gay rights movement. Here are collected the you-are-there stories and original analyses by the protagonists of this story.
The political and cultural upheaval of the '60s has become a subject blighted by misconceptions and stereotypes. To many, it is synonymous with widespread drug abuse, failed social experiments, and general irresponsibility. Despite sustained public interest, few remember that many of the freedoms and rights Americans enjoy today are the direct result of those who defied the established order during this tumultuous period. It was an era that challenged both mainstream and elite American notions of how politics and society should function. In Generation on Fire, Jeff Kisseloff's continuing work in oral history, witnesses speak about their motives and actions during the 1960s through the present. Kisseloff provides an eclectic and highly personal account of the political and social activity of the decade. Among other things, the book offers firsthand accounts of what it was like to face a mob's wrath in the segregated South and to survive the jungles of Vietnam. It takes readers inside the courtroom of the Chicago Eight and into a communal household in Vermont. From the stage at Woodstock to the playing fields of the NFL and finally to a fateful confrontation at Kent State, Generation on Fire brings the '60s alive again. In this riveting collection of never-before published interviews, Generation on Fire unapologetically contextualizes the world of the 1960s, illuminating the ingrained social and cultural obstacles facing those working for change as well as the courage and shortcomings of those who defied "acceptable" conventions and mores. Sometimes tragic, sometimes hilarious, the stories in this volume celebrate the passion, courage, and independent thinking that led a generation to believe change for the better was possible.
Choice Outstanding Academic Title 2002 Community organizing became an integral part of the activist repertoire of the New Left in the 1960s. Students for a Democratic Society, the organization that came to be seen as synonymous with the white New Left, began community organizing in 1963, hoping to build an interracial movement of the poor through which to demand social and political change. SDS sought nothing less than to abolish poverty and extend democratic participation in America. Over the next five years, organizers established a strong presence in numerous low-income, racially diverse urban neighborhoods in Chicago, Cleveland, Newark, and Boston, as well as other cities. Rejecting the strategies of the old left and labor movement and inspired by the Civil Rights Movement, activists sought to combine a number of single issues into a broader, more powerful coalition. Organizers never limited themselves to today's simple dichotomies of race vs. class or of identity politics vs. economic inequality. They actively synthesized emerging identity politics with class and coalition politics and with a drive for a more participatory welfare state, treating these diverse political approaches as inextricably intertwined. While common wisdom holds that the New Left rejected all state involvement as cooptative at best, Jennifer Frost traces the ways in which New Left and community activists did in fact put forward a prescriptive, even visionary, alternative to the welfare state. After Students for a Democratic Society and its community organizing unit, the Economic Research and Action Project, disbanded, New Left and community participants went on to apply their strategies and goals to the welfare rights, women’s liberation, and the antiwar movements. In her study of activism before the age of identity politics, Frost has given us the first full-fledged history of what was arguably the most innovative community organizing campaign in post-war American history.
We seek the establishment of a democracy of individual participation governed by two central aims: that the individual share in those social decisions determining the quality and direction of his life; that society be organized to encourage independence in men and provide the media for their common participation . . ." --from the 'PORT HURON STATEMENT' Four key periods in American history have most influenced what America is like today: the Revolutionary War, the Civil War, World War II, and the 1960s. No document better frames and explains the 1960s than the 'PORT HURON STATEMENT'. The statement was a generational call for direct participatory democracy in which Americans would have greater say over the decisions affecting their lives. It called for the extension of democratic principles to the workplace as well as the electoral arena. It opposed the dominance of the military-industrial complex with the hope that social movements could reform the Democrats as a party of progressive opposition. In its vision greater democracy would lessen individuals' alienation. The manifesto's 1962 publication preceded the phenomena of the counter-culture, hippies and back-to-the-land. It is truly the intellectual roots of the social change of the 1960s and its impact is still being felt in 2005. In "The Big Lebowksi," the character played by Jeff Bridges claimed authorship; it was condemned by right-wing justice Robert Bork, recalled with nostalgia by Garry Wills and E.J. Dionne, and sections have been printed in countless readers on American history.
Labelled a "domestic terrorist" by the McCain campaign in 2008 and used by the radical right in an attempt to castigate Obama for "pallin' around with terrorists", Bill Ayers is in fact a dedicated teacher, father, and social justice advocate with a sharp memory and even sharper wit. Public Enemy tells his story from the moment he and his wife, Bernardine Dohrn, emerged from years on the run and rebuilt their lives as public figures, often celebrated for their community work and much hated by the radical right. In the face of defamation by conservative media, including a multimillion-dollar campaign aimed solely at demonizing Ayers, and in spite of frequent death threats, Bill and Bernardine stay true to their core beliefs in the power of protest, demonstration, and deep commitment. Ayers reveals how he has navigated the challenges and triumphs of this public life with steadfastness and a dash of good humour—from the red carpet at the Oscars, to prison vigils and airports (where he is often detained and where he finally "confesses" that he did write Dreams from My Father), and ultimately on the ground at Grant Park in 2008 and again in 2012.
This text offers a comprehensive anthology of the writings of America's native radical tradition. From Thomas Paine's 'Common Sense' to Kate Millett's 'Sexual Politics', this collection of documents sparked, guided and distilled the most influential movements in American history.
A Kirkus Reviews Best Nonfiction Book of the Year From the National Book Award winner, a masterful history of the decade whose conflicts shattered America's postwar order and divide us still. On July 4, 1961, the rising middle-class families of a Chicago neighborhood gathered before their flag-bedecked houses, a confident vision of the American Dream. That vision was shattered over the following decade, its inequities at home and arrogance abroad challenged by powerful civil rights and antiwar movements. Assassinations, social violence, and the blowback of a "silent majority" shredded the American fabric. Covering the late 1950s through the early 1970s, The Shattering focuses on the period's fierce conflicts over race, sex, and war. The civil rights movement develops from the grassroots activism of Montgomery and the sit-ins, through the violence of Birmingham and the Edmund Pettus Bridge, to the frustrations of King's Chicago campaign, a rising Black nationalism, and the Nixon-era politics of busing and the Supreme Court. The Vietnam war unfolds as Cold War policy, high-stakes politics buffeted by powerful popular movements, and searing in-country experience. Americans' challenges to government regulation of sexuality yield landmark decisions on privacy rights, gay rights, contraception, and abortion. Kevin Boyle captures the inspiring and brutal events of this passionate time with a remarkable empathy that restores the humanity of those making this history. Often they are everyday people like Elizabeth Eckford, enduring a hostile crowd outside her newly integrated high school in Little Rock, or Estelle Griswold, welcoming her arrest for dispensing birth control information in a Connecticut town. Political leaders also emerge in revealing detail: we track Richard Nixon's inheritances from Eisenhower and his debt to George Wallace, who forged a message of racism mixed with blue-collar grievance that Nixon imported into Republicanism. The Shattering illuminates currents that still run through our politics. It is a history for our times.
The fascinating and turbulent black America of the 1960s emerges in these essays, through the lenses of dissent and its contradictions. Gerald L. Early revisits this volatile time in American history, when class, culture, and race ignited conflagrations of bitterness and hatred across the nation. The lives of three active and influential people are given special attention: Cecil B. Moore, advocate and agitator in the “racial tinderbox” of black Philadelphia; Muhammad Ali, promoter of a “colored” consciousness; and Sammy Davis Jr., survivor of black vaudeville and liberator of black performers. The fiercely independent Moore, who rebuffed the black political establishment because it failed to address the concerns and needs of the majority of the black populace, used the authority of the NAACP to forge a militant, populist organization at the local level. Ali, one of the most widely recognized athletes of all time, combined protest and action to become a hero for black and “colored” people throughout the world, and became a type of ambassador to the Third World. Davis mirrored America’s emancipation, confusion, and self-destructiveness, and, most important, its self-consciousness, which transcended even his remarkable accomplishments as an entertainer. As Early demonstrates, the careers and lives of Moore, Ali, and Davis illustrate and embody the ambiguity and struggle of American identity in the 1960s.
What happened to the Vietnam protesters and civil rights activists? Where did their idealism lead them? And what do they feel they have contributed to the nation's political debate? Answers to these and many other questions can be found in the first-hand narratives, history, and photographs of Where Have All the Flower Children Gone? Chapters examine such aspects as the origins of the student protest movement and the conservative backlash as well as the fates of draft evaders, expatriates, and conscientious objectors. Respondents explore the conflict between the various generations over Vietnam, Iraq, and other issues. What happened to the children of the 1960s, and how do they reconcile their pasts with the present? Gurvis examines little-known aspects of the 1960s such as an uprising at Colorado State and coffeehouses that helped soldiers form opinions about Vietnam. Where Have All the Flower Children Gone? puts a contemporary face on the Age of Aquarius. Gurvis interviews such officials as Senator Chuck Hagel (R-Nebraska) and such high-profile former radicals as Bernadine Dohrn. The book also provides one of the last interviews with the late Ossie Davis. The major and minor players of Kent State and Jackson State, where students and others perished at the hands of soldiers, weigh in as well as do the generations preceding and succeeding the Baby Boomers. Sandra Gurvis is a freelance writer living in Columbus, Ohio. She has written for numerous magazines and is the author of ten books, including the novel The Pipe Dreamers.