"From the Jaws of Victory: The Triumph and Tragedy of Cesar Chavez and the Farm Worker Movement" is the most comprehensive history ever written on the meteoric rise and precipitous decline of the United Farm Workers, the most successful farm labor union in United States history. Based on little-known sources and one-of-a-kind oral histories with many veterans of the farm worker movement, this book revises much of what we know about the UFW. Matt Garcias gripping account of the expansion of the unions grape boycott reveals how the boycott, which UFW leader Cesar Chavez initially resisted, became the defining feature of the movement and drove the growers to sign labor contracts in 1970. Garcia vividly relates how, as the union expanded and the boycott spread across the United States, Canada, and Europe, Chavez found it more difficult to organize workers and fend off rival unions. Ultimately, the union was a victim of its own success and Chavezs growing instability. "From the Jaws of Victory "delves deeply into Chavezs attitudes and beliefs, and how they changed over time. Garcia also presents in-depth studies of other leaders in the UFW, including Gilbert Padilla, Marshall Ganz, Dolores Huerta, and Jerry Cohen. He introduces figures such as the co-coordinator of the boycott, Jerry Brown; the undisputed leader of the international boycott, Elaine Elinson; and Harry Kubo, the Japanese American farmer who led a successful campaign against the UFW in the mid-1970s.
Cesar Chavez is the most prominent Latino in United States history books, and much has been written about Chavez and the United Farm Worker's heyday in the 1960s and '70s. But left untold has been their ongoing impact on 21st century social justice movements. Beyond the Fields unearths this legacy, and describes how Chavez and the UFW's imprint can be found in the modern reshaping of the American labor movement, the building of Latino political power, the transformation of Los Angeles and California politics, the fight for environmental justice, and the burgeoning national movement for immigrant rights. Many of the ideas, tactics, and strategies that Chavez and the UFW initiated or revived#151;including the boycott, the fast, clergy-labor partnerships and door-to-door voter outreach#151;are now so commonplace that their roots in the farmworkers' movement is forgotten. This powerful book also describes how the UFW became the era's leading incubator of young activist talent, creating a generation of skilled alumni who went on to play critical roles in progressive campaigns. UFW volunteers and staff were dedicated to furthering economic justice, and many devoted their post-UFW lives working for social change. When Barack Obama adopted #147;Yes We Can” as his 2008 campaign theme, he confirmed that the spirit of #147;Si Se Puede” has never been stronger, and that it still provides the clearest roadmap for achieving greater social and economic justice in the United States.
This engaging and comprehensive overview of Chicano history is passionately written and extensively researched. Equipped to accommodate the growing number of Chicano courses and enrollment, this detailed text presents coverage of the roles of race and gender in forming Mexican American identity. Written by one of the most influential and highly regarded voices of Chicano History and Ethnic Studies, Occupied America is the leading textbook for Chicano History courses. With a concise and engaged narrative, and timelines that give students a context for pivotal events in Chicano history, Occupied America illuminates the struggles and decisions that frame Chicano identity today. Mexico, Latino, Colonization, Chicano Movement, immigration, labor movements and organizations, Catholic Church, Civil rights, Education and schools, League of United Latin American Citizens, Mutualistas Chicano, Immigration, US history and Mexican-American history courses.
"From the Alianza Hispano-Americana, a mutual aid society founded in Tucson, Arizona in 1894, to the Zoot Suit Riots in Los Angeles in 1943, this first-ever dictionary of important issues in the U.S. Latino struggle for civil rights defines a wide-ranging list of key terms. With over 922 entries on significant events, figures, laws, and other historical items, this ground-breaking reference work covers the fight for equality from the mid-nineteenth century to the present by the various Hispanic groups in the United States."--BOOK JACKET.
In 1968, ten thousand students marched in protest over the terrible conditions prevalent in the high schools of East Los Angeles, the largest Mexican community in the United States. Chanting "Chicano Power," the young insurgents not only demanded change but heralded a new racial politics. Frustrated with the previous generation's efforts to win equal treatment by portraying themselves as racially white, the Chicano protesters demanded justice as proud members of a brown race. The legacy of this fundamental shift continues to this day. Ian Haney López tells the compelling story of the Chicano movement in Los Angeles by following two criminal trials, including one arising from the student walkouts. He demonstrates how racial prejudice led to police brutality and judicial discrimination that in turn spurred Chicano militancy. He also shows that legal violence helped to convince Chicano activists that they were nonwhite, thereby encouraging their use of racial ideas to redefine their aspirations, culture, and selves. In a groundbreaking advance that further connects legal racism and racial politics, Haney López describes how race functions as "common sense," a set of ideas that we take for granted in our daily lives. This racial common sense, Haney López argues, largely explains why racism and racial affiliation persist today. By tracing the fluid position of Mexican Americans on the divide between white and nonwhite, describing the role of legal violence in producing racial identities, and detailing the commonsense nature of race, Haney López offers a much needed, potentially liberating way to rethink race in the United States.
In this first published anthology, Richard J. Jensen and John C. Hammerback present Chavez in his own terms. Through this collection of words and analysis of his major speeches and writings, Jensen and Hammerback reveal the rhetorical qualities and underlying rhetorical dynamics of a master communicator. They also offer a rich source of the history of the farm workers' movement that Chavez led from the early 1960s to his death in 1993.
A history of the Chicano nationalist movement in Los Angeles during the 1960s and 1970s. This lively book traces its rise, conflicts among its various branches, and connections to other radical groups during the volatile period of civil rights and anti-war struggles.
Coming of age during the turmoil of the sixties, noted filmmaker Jesus Salvador Trevino was on the spot to record the struggles to organize students and workers into the largest social and political movement in the history of Latino communities in the United States.
The presence and impact of Hispanics/Latinos in the United States cannot be ignored. Already the largest minority group, by 2050 their numbers will exceed all the other minority groups in the United States combined. The diversity of this population is often understated, but the people differ in terms of their origin, race. language, custom, religion, political affiliation, education and economic status. The heterogeneity of the Hispanic/Latino population raises questions about their identity and their rights: do they really constitute a group? That is, do they have rights as a group, or just as individuals? This volume, addresses these concerns through a varied and interdisciplinary approach.
Historical documents help chronicle the struggle of Mexican Americans for equal civil rights in the United States from the early 1800s through the modern era, with individual prefaces for each document and suggestions for further reading.
Mexican Americans, like many other Americans, have a long history of struggle for equality and civil rights. Yet only in recent decades has that history begun to be included as part of mainstream American history. Bringing together a wealth of information on the Mexican American struggle for civil rights, this authoritative encyclopedia provides factual up-to-date information on the concepts, issues, plans, legislation, court decisions, events, organizations, and people involved in that long fight. It includes such leading figures as Corky Gonzales, Hector Perez GarcIa, Jovita Idar, and Alonso Perales, as well as many secondary leaders, and is rounded out with objective discussions of such topics as leadership, the movimiento, lynching, political exclusion, voting, and stereotyping. Appendices include a chronology and several basic documents critical to an understanding of the Mexican American Civil Rights struggle. The first comprehensive encyclopedia on this aspect of Mexican American history, the book fills a noticeable gap in the literature. It includes more than 300 entries, six appendices, sources of additional information, cross-referencing, and a detailed index that makes the history readily available. The book is a valuable resource for anyone interested in the Mexican American experience.
When the Chavez family lost its farm in Arizona in 1938 during the Depression, they moved to California and became migrant workers. Cesar was outraged by the exploitation, racism, and brutality that migrant farmworkers were forced to endure. His strong religious convictions, a dedication to nonviolent change, and a skill at organizing led to the establishment of the United Farmworkers (UFW) union. "La Causa," as it was called by supporters, became an important movement for self-determination in the lives of California's Mexican American and Filipino farmworkers. The successful nationwide grape and lettuce boycotts and public support exposed the injustices of California agribusiness and resulted in the first collective bargaining agreements and union hiring halls for migrant workers.
Founded by Mexican American men in 1929, the League of United Latin-American Citizens (LULAC) has usually been judged according to Chicano nationalist standards of the late 1960s and 1970s. Drawing on extensive archival research, including the personal papers of Alonso S. Perales and Adela Sloss-Vento, No Mexicans, Women, or Dogs Allowed presents the history of LULAC in a new light, restoring its early twentieth-century context. Cynthia Orozco also provides evidence that perceptions of LULAC as a petite bourgeoisie, assimilationist, conservative, anti-Mexican, anti-working class organization belie the realities of the group's early activism. Supplemented by oral history, this sweeping study probes LULAC's predecessors, such as the Order Sons of America, blending historiography and cultural studies. Against a backdrop of the Mexican Revolution, World War I, gender discrimination, and racial segregation, No Mexicans, Women, or Dogs Allowed recasts LULAC at the forefront of civil rights movements in America.